English- or Spanish- speaking; between the ages of 18—40 years; currently using oral contraceptives; not planning to move out of the area in the next year; never had a sterilization procedure woman or her partner ; and had never been told by a doctor that they were infertile woman or her partner. All of the clinics serve a large, urban city in North Carolina. For this analysis, we used data from the 3-month follow-up. Participants checked or wrote their answers, ripped off the pre-stamped postcard, and placed it in the mail. Recruitment and Data Collection A total of women provided written informed consent and participated in the study. The cards were simple and included only the three questions and used a convenient, confidential method to provide the information. Based on diary information, the mean number of days women had sexual intercourse per week was 1.
Additional follow-up points for this feasibility study occurred at 3-month intervals out to 15 months. The 3-month postcard asked women the following: Women were then given a set of diaries with detailed instructions and stamped envelopes to mail them back to the researchers. Thus, after excluding these women, 98 women remained for the analysis. From June to January , women were recruited from waiting rooms of three sites: Statistical Analysis Although a total of This clinic has over 3, patient visits each year. The obstetrics and gynecology clinic affiliated with this hospital has over 34, patient visits each year. Furthermore, there may be methodological issues in some studies regarding the actual retrospective and prospective measurements used to assess sexual intercourse frequency. Participants were given three diaries, one for each month. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the baseline characteristics of the study population. The family medicine and obstetrics and gynecology clinics are affiliated with a local hospital and the family planning clinic is associated with a local health department. The baseline interview was conducted by trained, bilingual research assistants on site at the clinics. With respect to mean differences for various sociodemographic groups, the mean differences were positive for all groups indicating that women consistently reported a higher frequency of sexual intercourse on retrospective postcards than they recorded on their prospective diaries Table 2. The diary was one large sheet of paper and included a simple chart for women to check vaginal sexual intercourse and oral contraceptive use for each day. Lastly and importantly, the majority of the research to date on the validity of retrospective versus prospective methods of sexual activity recall was conducted over 10 years ago [ 1 — 5 , 8 — 10 ]. Recruitment and Data Collection A total of women provided written informed consent and participated in the study. Thus, potentially informative contemporary research on sexual intercourse frequency is lacking. Examples include limited racial diversity [ 1 , 3 , 7 , 8 , 11 ]; use of sex workers [ 4 ]; use of sexual behavior among homosexuals [ 2 ]; and lack of randomized control study design [ 1 , 2 , 4 , 7 , 9 — 11 ]. To assess the validity of retrospective recall of vaginal sexual intercourse frequency, the diary card information was compared to the frequency of sexual intercourse information provided on the 3-month postcard employing analytic approaches previously used by Hornsby and Wilcox in their study on the validity of sexual intercourse [ 1 ]. Methods Study Design and Population The Fertility and Oral Contraceptive Use Study was a feasibility study designed to explore methodological issues related to the future development and implementation of a large, prospective cohort study to investigate the role of obesity in oral contraceptive failure. Participants were compensated for their participation with gift cards to a local supermarket. The hospital system is the largest healthcare system in the Carolinas, and one of the largest public, non-profit healthcare systems in the nation. Since that time there have been considerable changes in health behaviors and attitudes towards contraception and sexual intercourse. Women were asked to complete the diaries on a daily basis and mail one back each month as it was completed. Finally, linear mixed models to adjust for correlated outcome measures were used to test for variation in response within categories of demographic and other variables. For example, women in the United States have gained increased access to newer forms of contraception including intrauterine devices, contraceptive rings, and implants [ 12 ].
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